A well-fed calf is better equipped to fight off the challenges that come with an immature immune system.
Therefore, good calf nutrition cannot be underestimated. Good nutrition results in less sickness, reduced antibiotic use and better performance.
The following 10 steps will assist your calves reach their true growth potential.
1. Use the 1,2,3 rule when feeding colostrum
Farmers are advised to use the 1,2,3 rule when feeding colostrum to the new-born calves. The rule is simple to remember and has been proven to be effective.
Using the 1,2,3 rule:
- 1. Use the first milk (colostrum) from the cow
- 2. Feed the calf colostrum within the first two hours of birth
- 3. Calves must be offered at least three litres of good quality colostrum
Correct colostrum management is important as calves are born without adequate antibodies to fight off infection.
New-born calves acquire 90% of their immunity (passive) to pathogens and disease from the first 24 hours of feeding, therefore colostrum management should be a key priority at farm level.
2. Measure colostrum quality
It is also important to measure the quality of colostrum and this can be done using a Brix refractometer
High quality colostrum which has a reading of 22% or above can be used or stored. Colostrum quality decreases rapidly after each subsequent milking.
3. Feed a quality milk replacer
Milk replacer is a consistent feed which contains vitamins and trace elements designed for calf growth and specific nutritional needs.
Avoid feeding cheap milk replacers as they are generally lower in milk protein ingredients which may not be suitable for very young calves.
Trial work has shown that using a 26% Protein milk replacers such as Pro Heifer helps calves achieve target weaning weights earlier.
4. Ensure plenty of water is available to calves
Water is essential for calves as they are born without a functioning rumen which is developed by the fermentation of grain and water.
Calves offered free-choice water consume more calf starter and begin to grow at a faster rate. Weaned calves require 10-15L per day, this can increase up to 25L on hot days.
5. Managing weaning
When feeding milk replacer, consider the age of the calf you are feeding. Calves less than four weeks of age cannot digest the same ingredients as older animals.
When weaning calves, gradually reduce the volume fed over seven-to-10 days. This will lead to an increased concentrate intake and avoid a slump in growth rate after weaning.
Aim for 0.7-0.8kg weight gain per day (not less than 0.55 at any period). It is also recommended to increase the level of milk by 1-2% in cold weather.
6. Evaluate and monitor dehydration
Sick calves may lose up to 10% of their body weight in a single day when they are scouring and in severe cases may result in death. A clear test for dehydration is the skin tenting check.
To tent the skin, firmly pinch the loose folds of the skin on the next of the calf and check to see how long the skin remains tented.
If the skin flattens in less than two seconds, this indicates normal hydration. If the skin takes two-to-six seconds to flatten, the calf is about 8% dehydrated. Over six seconds would indicate severe dehydration of over 10%.
7. Minimise the risk of calf scour
The greatest cause of calf death in Ireland is scour and pneumonia.
Adopt basic management protocols to both reduce exposure to the causative organism and increase the calf’s immunity.
8. Be prepared for calf scour
Early detection and action is essential for control.
Depending on the severity of the scour treatment, it may be decided to: Isolate affected calves (to reduce spread of disease); give an oral electrolyte such as Rehydion Gel and continue to feed the calf milk or milk replacer for energy.
9. Use clean feeding utensils
Feed buckets should be separated from water buckets to prevent grain from being dribbled into the water and vice versa.
Ensure feeding teats are not worn and clean all equipment. Calibrate automatic feeders regularly.
10. Avoid feeding waste milk
For calves retained for breeding, avoid feeding waste milk, this can pose the risk of carrying disease such as Johne’s and can cause the development of antibiotic resistance.
ProCalf and Pro Heifer milk replacers are supplied by Interchem (Ireland) Ltd. The veterinary approved range of milk replacers offer excellent results in nutrition, growth rates, digestibility, taste and ease of mixing. For more advice on feeding calves